no mood for political or military adventurism in the region.” Britain was concerned that the. Axis forces would gain a foothold in the region or that the Levant. Hichem Djait is professor emeritus of history at University of Tunis. His work La Grande Discorde: Religion et politique dans l’Islam des origines Djaït,Hichem. It is easy to discover that the best book there is on the subject is by the brilliant Tunisian scholar, Hichem Djait: La Grande Discorde, which.

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They also asked Uthman’s adopted son, Muhammad bin Abi Hudhaifawho Uthman had refused to appoint as a governor of any province, why he was not a governor. Therefore, each wanted the capital of diacorde newly established Islamic state to be in their area. The people of Medina asked Ali, who had been chief judge in Medina, to become the Caliph and he accepted. Neither side wanted to fight.

When Allah decides disforde matter, He carries it out whether His servants like it or not. The two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, uichem of the time being spent in negotiations. Six months later inin the interest of peace, Hasan ibn Ali made a peace treaty with Muawiyah. If we meet tomorrow the Byzantines will attack our women and children and the people of Persia will attack the women and children of Mesopotamia.

On Him I rely and to Him I return.


Rebellion successful, peace treaty signed; Muawiya I begins the Umayyad dynasty. Tie the copies of the Quran to the ends of the spears.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. The Sassanid Dynasty in Persia had already collapsed. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari decided to act accordingly. Syracuse University Press Both of us remove ‘Ali as well as Mu’awiya from the caliphate.

It ended in when Ali’s heir Hasan ibn Ali concluded a treaty acknowledging the rule of Muawiyahthe first Umayyad caliph. In Mesopotamia, many people hated the Syrians. If we fight tomorrow, it will be the annihilation of the Arabs and the loss of what is sacred. Region under the control of Muawiyah I.

Archived from the original on The First Fitna Arabic: Much of the Jewish literature on him from that time regards him as an apostate from Judaism and asks Jews to keep away from him.

However, the Qurra and the Sabaites were unhappy with the settlement and launched a night attack. The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and the consequent Byzantine losses in manpower and territory meant that the Eastern Roman Empire found itself struggling for survival.

Some of the people with their tribal names as Qurra had been expelled from Kufa, for fomenting trouble and were sent to Muawiyah in Syria.

First Fitna

It was decided that the Syrians and the residents of Kufa should nominate an arbitrator, each to decide between ‘Ali and Mu’awiya. Although Ali won the battle, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing. Three years later, and there came the inevitable blowback: Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. Many desert nomads and some bandits living between current-day Iraq and Saudi Arabia also joined in, not out of commitment to Islam but to share the spoils and benefit from the change in the social order, after the defeat of the Persian Empire.


The Persians maintained an Arab satellite state of Lakhm and the Byzantine Empire maintained the Arab satellite state of Ghassan, which they used to fight each other. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Grande discorde — Wikipédia

High taxes were imposed on the populations in both the Byzantine Roman and Sassanid Persian empires to finance these wars. The Muslims are given the right to elect a caliph as they think best. He is right, by the Lord. The loss of life was terrible.

In it some of the Arabs have been annihilated.

Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in In the Hasan-Muawiya treatyHasan ibn Ali handed over power to Muawiya on the condition that he be just to the people and keep them safe and secure and after his death he does not establish a dynasty. Ali had done a great deal to attempt to save Uthman; however, Marwan prevented Ali from being able to help Uthman.

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